The dynamic functions of the ovaries, uterus, embryo, and fetus are beginning to be fully appreciated as mares are evaluated during different stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy and during various seasons. Anomalies, injuries and age-related changes may occur in mares, necessitating the use of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic procedures, which require a thorough knowledge of equine anatomy. Several references, including the corresponding chapter in the first edition of this text, are currently available and provide a comprehensive discussion of reproduction in the mare, complementing the information presented in this text. The organs involved in reproductive function are not only physiologically but also morphologically dynamic. The reproductive tract in the mare consists of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterine horns, uterine body, cervix, vagina, vestibule, and vulva. These are the organs that produce the oocyte, facilitate its fertilization, provide an environment for embryonic and fetal development, and transport the fetus from the maternal to the external environment.
Clinical Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology of the Mare
Mare Reproductive Tract Chart | Reproductive system, Horse anatomy, Equines
Skip to content Ontario. Explore Government. Horses have the potential for high reproductive performance. With an understanding of basic reproductive science, breeders can be better positioned to achieve their goals. This Factsheet presents information on basic anatomy, physiology and management techniques that can assist in improving reproductive performance in the mare. The estrous cycle in most mares starts to normalize in late April or early May until August - the normal breeding season for horses. The estrous cycle is composed of two phases: the estrous phase in heat and the diestrous phase out of heat.